Tense in English – Structure

Tense in English – Structure

TENSES

Tenses denote the time of action. They show when the work is done. They are:

  • Present Tense
  • Past Tense
  • Future Tense

They are further divided into:

Text Box: ASSERTIVE RULE --- sub + V1 + s/es + object

Simple Present- It is used to denote scientific facts, universal truths and work done on daily basis.

Example – She writes a letter.

Text Box: NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + does not + v1 + s/es + object

Example – She does not write a letter.

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE RULE --- Does + sub + v1 + s/es + object

Example – Does she write a letter?

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE ASSERTIVE --- Does + sub + not + v1 + s/es + object

Example – Does she not write a letter?

  • Present Continuous– It is used to express an action taking place at the time of speaking.
ASSERTIVE RULE — sub + is/am/are + v1 + ing + object  

Example – she is writing a letter.

Text Box: NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + is/am/are + not + v1 + ing + object

Example – She is not writing a letter.

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE RULE --- is/am/are + sub + v1 + ing + object

Example – Is she writing a letter?

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE RULE --- is/am/are + sub + not + v1 + ing + object

Example – Is she not writing a letter?

  • Present Perfect– It is used to show an action that started in the past and has just finished.
ASSERTIVE RULE — sub + has/have + v3 + object  

Example- She has written a letter.

Text Box: NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + has/have + not + v3 + object

Example – She has not written a letter.

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE RULE --- has/have + sub + v3 + object

Example- Has she written a letter?

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE RULE ---has/have + sub + not + v3 + object

Example– Has she not written a letter?

  • Present Perfect Continuous– This tense shows the action which started in the past and is still continuing.
ASSERTIVE RULE — sub + has/have + been + v1 + ing + object  

Example – She has been writing a letter.

Text Box: NEGATIVE RULE --- sub + has/have + not been + v1 + ing + object

Example– She has not been writing a letter.

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE RULE ---has/have + sub + been + v1 + ing + object

Example – Has she been writing a letter?

Text Box: INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE RULE --- has/have + she + not + been + v1 + ing + object

Example – Has she not been writing a letter?